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Ancient Greek, Verb, pronounced Ekh-o. The Transliterated word is Echo. New Testament Greek Lexicon


“[To] have (hold) in the hand, in the sense of wearing, to have (hold) possession of the mind (refers to alarm, agitating emotions, etc.), to hold fast keep, to have or comprise or involve, to regard or consider or hold as.”




Text Menu for Blind Readers: Home, Publications: -Philosophy, -Experiences, -Psychology, -Arts education, -History, sociology and culture Who’s who: -Philosophy, -Experiences, -Psychology, -Arts education, -History, sociology and culture, Institution guide, Gallery, Calendar, Editor, Archive



Who’s Who: Educationalists

Relatively speaking, this is a new subject that is being increasingly recognised for its importance. Although educationalists have been designing arts curricula in schools for the blind since the beginning of the 19th century, a serious study of this topic was not really observable until the second half of the 20th century. Furthermore, it was not properly understood that blind people could appreciate all forms of aesthetics until the end of the 20th century.


Information on Demodocus

The first writer to propose a formal, institutionalised system of education for the blind. In a paper in The Edinburgh Review in the 18th Century, this anonymous writer, whilst referring to the philosophy of Locke and Diderot amongst others, proposed a system of what would later become handwork or “industrial arts” mixed with “enlightened” literature.

Valentin hauy

Information on Hauy

The French educationalist Hauy was the first to create a formal, educational institution for the blind, in Paris in the late 18th century. In order to raise funds for this institution, he wrote a paper citing the work of Locke, Diderot and Sanderson. Ironically, he dedicated this work to the king of France. He promoted literature for the blind and a tactile alphabet.

Wilhelm Klein

Information on Klein

The German educationalist Klein appears to be the first person to write about, or indeed promote, haptic (non-visual) aesthetic and “moral” art for the blind, his motives for this being linked to his Catholic faith. Having moved to Austria, he formed the Viennese Institute for the Blind in the early 19th century. Before this, he most notably taught Kleinhans to sculpt. 

JA Charlton-Deas

Information on Charlton-Deas

Charlton-Deas was the British curator of the Sunderland Gallery and Museum at the beginning of the 20th century. He conceived of the first gallery exhibition course for blind and visually students, which he later described in a paper published in the Museums and Galleries Journal in 1913. Unfortunately, this was not replicated until decades later.

Viktor lowenfeld

Information on Lowenfeld

Not only one of the most influential writers on arts and blindness, the Austrian Lowenfeld was perhaps one of the most influential writers on arts education as a whole, in his role as co-author of Creative and Mental Growth. Although trained as a sculptor, he first worked in a school for the blind in Vienna until becoming an academic in the US.

E axel & n levent

Information on Axel & Levent

The US art theorist Axel formed the revolutionary Art Education for the Blind, which initially designed tactile and sound descriptions of famous pieces of art. Later she teamed up with the Ukrainian academic Levent, now based at an art college in New York, to produce information on this issue for galleries and schools. This became Art Beyond Sight.

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