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Ancient Greek, Verb, pronounced Ekh-o. The Transliterated word is Echo. New Testament Greek Lexicon


“[To] have (hold) in the hand, in the sense of wearing, to have (hold) possession of the mind (refers to alarm, agitating emotions, etc.), to hold fast keep, to have or comprise or involve, to regard or consider or hold as.”




Text Menu for Blind Readers: Home, Publications: -Philosophy, -Experiences, -Psychology, -Arts education, -History, sociology and culture Who’s who: -Philosophy, -Experiences, -Psychology, -Arts education, -History, sociology and culture, Institution guide, Gallery, Calendar, Editor, Archive



Who’s Who: Psychologists

For over 300 years the main pre-occupation of academics studying blindness is the understanding of non-visual perception, its relation to sight and “the concepts and mechanisms” of perception. However, in the 20th Century these studies became empirical. We could literally fill this website with these researchers, but have restricted them to the six most prominent writers on this issue.

Max von senden

Information on Von Senden

The German academic Von Senden tested Molyneux’s question by analyzing case studies of patients recovering from congenital blindness in the 1930s, using only data from their medical records. His conclusion was that people who were blind had little concept of “visual” aesthetics, as they could not relate visual perceptions to tactile ones.

Geza revesz

Information on Revesz

Born in Hungary, Revesz worked in Holland. His pioneering work in the early decades of the 20th Century included observations and case studies of those born blind. In this study he developed a theory of haptic and visual types, concluding that Von Senden was wrong on certain aspects of his theory, but concurred that it was not possible for blind people to appreciate art as sighted people do.

Richard L Gregory

Information on Gregory

In the 1960s, Gregory was the first psychologist to reproduce Berkeley’s study. During this experiment he observed and tested a man recovering from congenital cataracts. Gregory concluded that SB could relate touch and vision directly —a concept named cross modal transfer. He also concluded that he had aesthetic appreciation.

John Kennedy 

Information on Kennedy

Although Northern Irish, Kennedy has worked in Canada since the 1970s. His work is as controversial as it is pioneering. He researches pictorial representation, drawing and blindness through case study work. Kennedy concludes that all people, both blind and sighted, have an inherent ability to understand art works, including 2D visual metaphor and perspective.

Oliver Sacks

Information on Sacks

This famous British physician works in the US, and has published studies on blindness amongst his vast corpus of work in the 1990s. He has reproduced Gregory’s study of SB on a patient called Virgil, reaching similar conclusions. He has also conducted a social study of a colour blind community, concluding their culture accommodated their blindness.

Charles Spence

Information on Spence

Working at Oxford University, the British psychologist Spence conducts pioneering research on the interactions between senses since the 1990s. Although not conducting experiments on blindness in particular, Spence concludes that the senses work in concert with each other; i.e. the perception of one sense is affected by the information of another.

Simon ungar

Information on Ungar

The British psychologist Ungar is based at Surrey University in the south of England. His research is based on the perception of tactile maps, and in particular an understanding of the cognitive mechanisms necessary to translate 2D representations into the 3D “real world” features. His research provides further evidence of the “cross modal transfer’ between vision and touch.

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